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Editor's Choice - Relevance of Infarct Size, Timing of Surgery, and Peri-operative Management for Non-ischaemic Cerebral Complications After Carotid Endarterectomy.

PMID: 34872814 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.09.044 (read at publisher's website )

Stephan Hause, Robert Schönefuß, Anne Assmann, Jens Neumann, Frank Meyer, Joerg Tautenhahn, Stefanie Schreiber, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Zuhir Halloul, Michael Goertler,

<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the incidence of post-operative non-ischaemic cerebral complications as a pivotal outcome parameter with respect to size of cerebral infarction, timing of surgery, and peri-operative management in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA).<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected single centre CEA registry data. Consecutive patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis were subjected to standard patch endarterectomy. Brain infarct size was measured from the axial slice of pre-operative computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating the largest infarct dimension and was categorised as large (> 4 cm<sup>2</sup>), small (≤ 4 cm<sup>2</sup>), or absent. CEA was performed early (within 14 days) or delayed (15 - 180 days) after the ischaemic event. Peri-operative antiplatelet regimen (none, single, dual) and mean arterial blood pressure during surgery and at post-operative stroke unit monitoring were registered. Non-ischaemic post-operative cerebral complications were recorded comprising haemorrhagic stroke and encephalopathy, i.e., prolonged unconsciousness, delirium, epileptic seizure, or headache.<h4>Results</h4>646 symptomatic patients were enrolled of whom 340 (52.6%) underwent early CEA; 367 patients (56.8%) demonstrated brain infarction corresponding to stenosis induced symptoms which was small in 266 (41.2%) and large in 101 (15.6%). Post-operative non-ischaemic cerebral complications occurred in 12 patients (1.9%; 10 encephalopathies, two haemorrhagic strokes) and were independently associated with large infarcts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.839; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.699 - 27.534) and median intra-operative mean arterial blood pressure in the upper quartile, i.e., above 120 mmHg (adjusted OR 13.318; 95% CI 2.749 - 64.519). Timing of CEA after the ischaemic event, pre-operative antiplatelet regimen, and post-operative blood pressure were not associated with non-ischaemic cerebral complications.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Infarct size and unintended high peri-operative blood pressure may increase the risk of non-ischaemic complications at CEA independently of whether performed early or delayed.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg (European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery)
[2022, 63(2):268-274]

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