<h4>Context</h4>Atherosclerosis predisposes individuals to adverse cardiovascular events. <i>Clinacanthus nutans</i> L. (Acanthaceae) is a traditional remedy used for diabetes and inflammatory conditions.<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the anti-atherosclerotic activity of a <i>C. nutans</i> leaf methanol extract (CNME) in a type 2 diabetic (T2D) rat model induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: non-diabetic fed a standard diet (C), C + CNME (500 mg/kg, orally), diabetic fed an HFD (DM), DM + CNME (500 mg/kg), and DM + Metformin (DM + Met; 300 mg/kg). Treatment with oral CNME and metformin was administered for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI), aortic tissue superoxide dismutase levels (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. The rats' aortas were stained for histological analysis and intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.<h4>Results</h4>The CNME-treated diabetic rats had reduced serum total cholesterol (43.74%; <i>p</i> = 0.0031), triglycerides (80.91%; <i>p</i> = 0.0003), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (56.64%; <i>p</i> = 0.0008), AI (51.32%; <i>p</i> < 0.0001), MDA (60.74%; <i>p</i> = 0.0026), TNF-α (61.78%; <i>p</i> = 0.0002), and IMT (39.35%; <i>p</i> < 0.0001) compared to untreated diabetic rats. SOD level, however, increased (53.36%; <i>p</i> = 0.0326). These CNME effects were comparable to those in the metformin-treated diabetic rats.<h4>Conclusions</h4><i>C. nutans</i> possesses anti-atherosclerotic properties, which may be due to reductions in vascular tissue oxidative stress, inflammation, and serum AI. Continued studies on atherosclerotic animal models are suggested.
Pharm Biol (Pharmaceutical biology)
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