<h4>Significance</h4>Adaptor proteins control the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular signaling. Dysregulation of adaptor protein function can cause aberrant cell signaling and promote cancer. The arrestin adaptor proteins are known to regulate signaling by the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are highly druggable and implicated in cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for arrestin dysregulation and the impact on GPCR function in cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent Advances: A new family of mammalian arrestins, termed the α-arrestins, was recently discovered. The α-arrestin, arrestin domain-containing protein 3 (ARRDC3), in particular has been identified as a tumor suppressor and reported to control cellular signaling of GPCRs in cancer.<h4>Critical issues</h4>Compared to the extensively studied mammalian α-arrestins, there is limited information regarding the regulatory mechanisms that control α-arrestin function. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate ARRDC3 function, which include post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. We also provide evidence that ARRDC3 can interact with a wide array of proteins that control diverse biological functions.<h4>Future directions</h4>ARRDC3 interacts with numerous proteins and is likely to display diverse functions in cancer, metabolic disease and other syndromes. Thus, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ARRDC3 activity in various cellular contexts is critically important. Recent studies suggest that α-arrestins may be regulated through post-translational modification, which is known to impact adaptor protein function. However, additional studies are needed to determine how these regulatory mechanisms affect ARRDC3 tumor suppressor function.
Antioxid Redox Signal (Antioxidants & redox signaling)
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