This review aimed to evaluate the effects of multi-domain interventions on cognition among individuals without dementia. Multi-domain interventions refer to those combining any single preventive measure such as physical activity, cognitive training, and/or nutrition to prevent dementia. Seventeen studies were included (n = 10,056 total participants; mean age = 73 years), eight of which were rated as strong in quality while the other nine showed moderate quality. The standardized mean difference (SMD; <i>d</i>) was used to calculate the effect size for each included study. Multi-domain interventions consisting of physical activity, cognitive training, cardioprotective nutrition, and/or cardiovascular health education exerted beneficial effects on global cognition, episodic memory, and/or executive function with very small to moderate effect sizes (0.16-0.77). Nurses may consider combining these components to potentially stave off dementia. Future research is warranted to identify the optimal multi-domain intervention components that can induce clinically significant beneficial effects on cognition.
West J Nurs Res (Western journal of nursing research)
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