Yogurt is traditionally fermented by a symbiotic starter culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. These bacteria exchange metabolites with each other to meet their nutritional demands during protocooperation, resulting in a shorter fermentation time. In this study, we investigated whether fumaric acid functions as a symbiotic agent to promote the growth of Lb. bulgaricus by evaluating 8 strains of Lb. bulgaricus and 7 strains of Strep. thermophilus. All the tested Lb. bulgaricus strains metabolized the added fumaric acid into succinic acid during monoculture in milk, and 6 strains (75%) showed shorter fermentation time compared with the control. The addition of malic acid showed similar trends as that of fumaric acid, indicating that the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle was functioning in Lb. bulgaricus. All 7 Strep. thermophilus strains tested produced fumaric acid during monoculture in milk. Further, in Lb. bulgaricus 2038, the gene expression of fumarate reductase that converts fumaric acid to succinic acid, was higher in the coculture with Strep. thermophilus 1131 than in the monoculture. These findings indicate that fumaric acid produced by Strep. thermophilus can function as a symbiotic substance during yogurt fermentation to stimulate the growth of Lb. bulgaricus.
J Dairy Sci (Journal of dairy science)
Cited: 0 times