Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the world and its etiology is not yet fully understood. The pathology of AD is primarily characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloid-β plaques. Unfortunately, few treatment options are available, and most treat symptoms, as is the case of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (IAChE) and <i>N</i>-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists. For more than 20 years pharmaceutical research has targeted the "amyloid cascade hypothesis," but this has not produced meaningful results, leading researchers to focus now on other characteristics of the disease and on multitarget approaches. This review aims to evaluate some new treatments that are being developed and studied. Among these are new treatments based on peptides, which have high selectivity and low toxicity; however, these compounds have a short half-life and encounter challenges when crossing the blood-brain barrier. The present review discusses up-and-coming peptides tested as treatments and explores some nanotechnological strategies to overcome the downsides. These compounds are promising, as they not only act on the symptoms but also aim to prevent progressive neuronal loss.
Neuroscientist (The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry)
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