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Coronavirus disease 2019 respiratory disease in children: clinical presentation and pathophysiology.

PMID: 33938476 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.1097/mop.0000000000001013 (read at publisher's website )

Lea C Steffes, David N Cornfield,

<h4>Purpose of review</h4>Pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory disease is a distinct entity from adult illness, most notable in its milder phenotype. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the clinical patterns, cellular pathophysiology, and epidemiology of COVID-19 respiratory disease in children with specific attention toward factors that account for the maturation-related differences in disease severity.<h4>Recent findings</h4>Over the past 14 months, knowledge of the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of COVID-19 pneumonia has rapidly expanded. The decreased disease severity of COVID-19 pneumonia in children was an early observation. Differences in the efficiency of viral cell entry and timing of immune recognition and response between children and adults remain at the center of ongoing research.<h4>Summary</h4>The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 respiratory disease in children is well defined. The age-related differences protecting children from severe disease and death remain incompletely understood.

Curr Opin Pediatr (Current opinion in pediatrics)
[2021, 33(3):302-310]

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