<h4>Purpose of review</h4>Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a devastating complication in the acute postoperative lung transplant period, associated with high short-term mortality and chronic rejection. We review its definition, pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention, treatment strategies, and future research directions.<h4>Recent findings</h4>New analyses suggest donation after circulatory death and donation after brain death donors have similar PGD rates, whereas donors >55 years are not associated with increased PGD risk. Recipient pretransplant diastolic dysfunction and overweight or obese recipients with predominant abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue have increased PGD risk. Newly identified recipient biomarkers and donor and recipient genes increase PGD risk, but their clinical utility remains unclear. Mixed data still exists regarding cold ischemic time and PGD risk, and increased PGD risk with cardiopulmonary bypass remains confounded by transfusions. Portable ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) may prevent PGD, but its use is limited to a handful of centers. Although updates to current PGD treatment are lacking, future therapies are promising with targeted therapy and the use of EVLP to pharmacologically recondition donor lungs.<h4>Summary</h4>There is significant progress in defining PGD and identifying its several risk factors, but effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant (Current opinion in organ transplantation)
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