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Why the Hips Remain Stable When the Spine Strays: A Deeper Analysis of the Relationship Between Hip Displacement and Severe Scoliosis in Patients With Cerebral Palsy.

PMID: 33825716 (view PubMed database entry)
DOI: 10.1097/bpo.0000000000001765 (read at publisher's website )

Matthew J Hadad, Amy L Xu, Barry R Bryant, Nicholas S Andrade, Alexander H Hoon, Paul D Sponseller,

<h4>Background</h4>Many patients with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and severe scoliosis develop hip displacement, whereas others do not. We investigated demographic characteristics, risk factors for CP, and imaging findings associated with nondisplaced hips in patients with CP and severe scoliosis.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively analyzed records of 229 patients with spastic quadriplegic CP and severe scoliosis who presented for treatment at our US academic tertiary care hospital between August 2005 and September 2015. Demographic characteristics, risk factors for CP, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were documented. Patients were classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level 4 or higher, with 58% at GMFCS level 5.3. Displaced hips (n=181 patients) were defined as a migration percentage of ≥30% or previous surgery for hip displacement/adductor contractures. Patients who did not meet these criteria were classified as nondisplaced (n=48 patients). We used univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression to determine associations between patient factors and hip displacement (alpha=0.05).<h4>Results</h4>Patients born at term (≥37 wk) had 2.5 times the odds [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-5.0] of having nondisplaced hips compared with patients born prematurely. Females had 2.0 times the odds (95% CI: 1.0-3.9) of having nondisplaced hips compared with males. Patients with normal brain MRI findings had 9.6 times the odds (95% CI: 2.3-41) of having nondisplaced hips compared with patients with abnormal findings. Hip displacement was not associated with race (P>0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Gestational age 37 weeks or above, female sex, and normal brain MRI findings are independently associated with nondisplaced hips in patients with spastic quadriplegic CP and severe scoliosis. These findings direct attention to characteristics that may place patients at greater risk of displacement. Future work may influence preventative screening practices and improve patient counseling regarding the risk of hip displacement.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Level III-retrospective comparative study.

J Pediatr Orthop (Journal of pediatric orthopedics)
[2021, 41(5):261-266]

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