Inflammation is a critical factor contributing to the progressive neurodegenerative process observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are activated early in PD pathogenesis and can both trigger and propagate early disease processes via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms such as upregulated immune cells and antibody-mediated inflammation. Downstream cytokines and gene regulators such as microRNA (miRNA) coordinate later disease course and mediate disease progression. Biomarkers signifying the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes at play within the central nervous system are of increasing interest to clinical teams. To be effective, such biomarkers must achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity for predicting PD risk, confirming diagnosis, or monitoring disease severity. The aim of this review was to summarize the current preclinical and clinical evidence that suggests that inflammatory processes contribute to the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative processes in PD. In this article, we further summarize the data about main inflammatory biomarkers described in PD to date and their potential for regulation as a novel target for disease-modifying pharmacological strategies.
Neuroscientist (The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry)
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