<h4>Background</h4>Reunion Island is a French overseas department located in a tropical area, where cystic fibrosis incidence is high. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are at risk of developing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. Epidemiologic studies are lacking in Reunion Island.<h4>Methods</h4>From 2002 to 2015, a retrospective review was performed in university hospitals on Reunion Island. All CF patients having at least 1 positive NTM isolate were included. Clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic data were collected from patient records.<h4>Results</h4>Fifty-one CF patients were included. The overall estimated prevalence of NTM was 26.4% in total CF population and 36.9% in patients aged over 12 years old. Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium avium were the most frequently identified species found in 31 patients (60.8%) and 14 patients (27.4%), respectively. A rare NTM species: Mycobacterium simiae was found in 4 patients (7.8%). Twenty-nine patients (56.9%) met the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for infection. They were more likely younger with a low body mass index and more frequently infected by Mycobacterium abscessus (22/29).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The overall prevalence of NTM in tropical Reunion Island is 3 times higher than in metropolitan France. A different environmental exposure in a tropical climate or risk factors related to cystic fibrosis or its treatment in Reunion patients could explain it.
Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, Publish Ahead of Print:]
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