<h4>Background</h4>Children and young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) typically lose their immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, including Japanese encephalitis (JE). Revaccination against JE in this population has not been well characterized.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective study evaluated the immunogenicity of inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine in children and young adults (<25 years of age) who had completed HSCT >1 year prior. Each patient received inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine at enrollment and 1 month after enrollment, as well as a booster dose 13 months after enrollment. Serum JE plaque reduction neutralization test and JE-specific T lymphocyte count assay were performed at baseline, 1 month after the second dose, on the day of the booster dose, and 1 month after the booster dose.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. At baseline, 15 patients (40.5%) had plaque reduction neutralization titer >10, which is considered protective. Among 22 seronegative patients, 15 (68.2%) and 19 (86.4%) exhibited seroconversion after revaccination and booster dose, respectively. Median JE-specific T lymphocyte counts also increased. Twenty of 111 (18.0%) vaccination doses resulted in self-limiting side effects.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccine may be safe and effective for immunization against JE virus in children and young adults who have undergone HSCT.
Pediatr Infect Dis J (The Pediatric infectious disease journal)
[2021, Publish Ahead of Print:]
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