Aim Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common malignant soft tissue tumour of childhood. We present the case of a late relapse of RMS to the leptomeninges after 15 years. Methods A 20 year old male presented with a 3 week history of headaches and nausea. He previously had RMS of his right ear diagnosed at age 5 years which was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. An MRI Brain and Spine confirmed extensive leptomeningeal disease and CSF analysis confirmed the presence of recurrent embryonal RMS. Results He completed two cycles of cyclophosphamide and topotecan followed by 45Gy/25Fr of craniospinal radiotherapy. Conclusion Late relapses beyond five years can be seen in up to 9% of patients, however very late recurrences (>10 years) are exceedingly rare. Molecular based methods such as gene expression profiling can aid risk stratification and survivorship clinics may become increasingly useful in following patients with high risk features.
Ir Med J (Irish medical journal)
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