Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine post-treatment variations in the hematological profile of stage 2 breast cancer patients and investigate the influence of disease stage and treatment pattern on these changes. The secondary objective was to evaluate the role of post-treatment hemoglobin as a predictor of disease-free survival. Methods This prospective, observational study included 177 stage 2, female, breast cancer patients. Treatment included surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy. Patients were divided into treatment groups based on their histopathological features. Laboratory investigations, including hemoglobin and complete blood count, were carried out twice, first, at the initial cancer diagnosis and, second, eight weeks after completion of radiotherapy. The patients were followed for a period of four years and their disease-free survival was calculated. Results A significant post-treatment decrease in hemoglobin levels and red blood cell (RBC) count was observed in all patients except hormone receptor-positive disease stage 2A patients treated without chemotherapy. Total leukocyte counts were significantly decreased in all hormone receptor-negative patients, and significant neutropenia was observed in all stage 2 patients who received chemotherapy. The severity of anemia was observed to be significantly lower in stage 2A patients (without lymph node metastasis) as compared to stage 2B patients (with lymph node metastasis). Furthermore, no anemia was observed in hormone receptor-positive patients treated without chemotherapy, while moderate anemia was observed in hormone receptor-negative patients who received both pre and post-surgical chemotherapy. The post-treatment hemoglobin levels were found to be a significant predictor of disease-free survival in hormone receptor-positive patients (HR = 0.140, p= 0.000) and in patients of all disease stages except stage 2B (T3 N1 M0). Conclusion The incidence and severity of post-treatment anemia are low in patients treated with hormonal therapy and high in patients with lymph node metastasis. Higher post-treatment hemoglobin levels predict a longer duration of disease-free survival in hormone receptor-positive patients of disease stages 2A and 2B (T2).
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