Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disorder caused by the deposition of lipids and fats in the hepatocytes, in individuals who consume little or no alcohol, which eventually progresses to cirrhosis and carcinoma. Apart from the known risk factors like obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and lack of physical activity (PA), diet also plays a major role in the development of NAFLD. A high body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) have positive associations with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of risk factors of hepatic steatosis in NAFLD population and to raise public awareness about the condition. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study from October to December 2019 with a sample size of 98 subjects determined by using a confidence interval (CI) of 99.9%. Patients presenting to Essa Laboratory, Karachi for abdominal ultrasound (US) were scanned for fatty changes in the liver, after obtaining consent, and were then assessed for risk factors by administering a 20-item questionnaire along with registering their BMI and WC measurement. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY). The independent sample t-test was applied for the exploration of variables and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Result Our study included 96 participants, of which 49 (51%) were male and 47 (49%) female. Mean BMI in females was slightly greater (30.58) than in males (27.98), whereas WC (in inches) was almost equal in males (40.796) and females (40.383). Among the people that had any comorbidities (n = 60, 62.5%), hypertension (HTN) was the most common one (n = 37, 38.5%) followed by diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 (n = 26, 27.1%). A significant majority (n = 63, 65.5%) never consumed any fruits or vegetables in their meal nor did they perform any sort of physical exercise (n = 46, 47.9%). Conclusion Obesity (high BMI), lack of PA, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables along with a carbohydrate- and fat-rich diet play a vital role in the development of hepatic steatosis. Moreover, HTN and DM, as components of MS, exhibit a significant association with NAFLD. Screening and counseling sessions should be considered for individuals with these anthropometric measurements and lifestyle characteristics.
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