Bronchiectasis is characterized by permanent destruction of the airways that presents with productive cough, as well as bronchial wall thickening and luminal dilatation on computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest; it is associated with high mortality. Accumulating data suggests higher rates of bronchiectasis among the HIV-positive population. This case series involves 14 patients with bronchiectasis and HIV followed at two major urban institutions from 1999 to 2018. Demographics, clinical presentation, microbiology, radiographic imaging, and outcomes were collected and compiled. Mean age was 42 years (range 12-77 years). 36% had a CD4 count greater than 500 cells/mm3, 28% had a CD4 count between 200 and 500 cells/mm3, and 36% had AIDS. 43% were treated for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) and 50% for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. 21% had COPD, 7% had asthma, and 7% had a history of pulmonary aspergillosis. Two patients were followed up by pulmonary services after diagnosis of bronchiectasis on CT. The timeline of the follow-up in these cases was within months and after three years respectively. It is posited that the prevalence of bronchiectasis in HIV patients may be underestimated. Improving recognition and management of bronchiectasis could help diminish rehospitalization rates.
Case Rep Pulmonol (Case reports in pulmonology)
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