OBJECTIVE:Systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs) are a group of disorders characterized by a dysregulation of innate immune system leading to multi-systemic inflammation. We aim to assess the neurological manifestations of Chinese adult patients with SAIDs. METHODS:Eighty adult patients (≥16 years) were diagnosed as SAIDs from April 2015 to June 2019, at the center of adult autoinflammatory diseases, Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Clinical and genetic features of these patients were collected. All patients underwent neurologic, ophthalmologic and otolaryngologic evaluation. RESULTS:Totally 31 out of 80 (38.8%) patients had neurological manifestations, including 14 familial Mediterranean fever (45.2%), 6 NLRP3-associated autoinflammatory disease (19.4%), 5 tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (16.1%), 5 NLRP12-associated autoinflammatory disease (16.1%), and 1 Yao syndrome (3.2%). Twenty patients (64.5%) were adult-onset. The median time of diagnosis delay was 11.7 years (0.5-50 years). The common neurological damage included headache (28 patients, 90.3%), sensorineural hearing loss (6, 19.4%), dizziness (4, 12.9%), cerebral infarction/hemorrhage (4, 12.9%), chronic aseptic meningitis (3, 9.7%), intracranial hypertension (3, 9.7%), papilledema (3, 9.7%), optic neuritis (2, 6.5%), and hydrocephalus (1, 3.2%). Severe neurological damage was observed in 8 patients (25.8%), including brain atrophy, hydrocephalus, complete hearing loss, chronic aseptic meningitis and optic neuritis. CONCLUSION:Neurological damage was diverse in SAIDs patients. Neurological symptoms should be fully realized by physicians, in not only pediatric but also adult patients with SAIDs. CSF analysis and brain images should be performed promptly. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to avoid irreversible neurological complications.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism)
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