Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are members of the Chlamydiaceae family of obligate intracellular bacteria. The former causes diseases predominantly at the mucosal epithelial layer of the urogenital or eye, leading to pelvic inflammatory diseases or blindness; while the latter is a major causative agent for pulmonary infection. On top of these well-described diseases at the respective primary infection sites, Chlamydia are notoriously known to migrate and cause pathologies at remote sites of a host. One such example is the sexually acquired reactive arthritis that often occurs at few weeks after genital C. trachomatis infection. C. pneumoniae, on the other hand, has been implicated in an extensive list of chronic inflammatory diseases which include atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, and primary biliary cirrhosis. This review summarizes the Chlamydia infection associated diseases at the secondary sites of infection, and describes the potential mechanisms involved in the disease migration and pathogenesis.
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