In Australia, the most researched and perhaps the most successful chlamydial species are the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, animal pathogens Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci. C. trachomatis remains the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections in Australians and trachoma in Australian Indigenous populations. C. pecorum is globally recognised as the infamous koala and widespread livestock pathogen, whilst the avian C. psittaci is emerging as a horse pathogen posing zoonotic risks to humans. Certainly not innocuous, the human infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae seem to be less prevalent that other human chlamydial pathogens (namely C. trachomatis). Interestingly, the complete host range for C. pecorum and C. psittaci remains unknown, and infections by other chlamydial organisms in Australian domesticated and wildlife animals are understudied. Considering that chlamydial organisms can be encountered by either host at the human/animal interface, I review the most recent findings of chlamydial organisms infecting Australians, domesticated animals and native wildlife. Furthermore, I also provide commentary from leading Australian Chlamydia experts on challenges and future directions in the Chlamydia research field.
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