Machine learning is a powerful and effective tool for medical image analysis to perform computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). Having great potential in improving the accuracy of a diagnosis, CAD systems are often analyzed in terms of the final accuracy, leading to a limited understanding of the internal decision process, impossibility to gain insights, and ultimately to skepticism from clinicians. We present a visual analysis approach to uncover the decision-making process of a CAD system for classifying pancreatic cystic lesions. This CAD algorithm consists of two distinct components: random forest (RF), which classifies a set of predefined features, including demographic features, and a convolutional neural network (CNN), which analyzes radiological features of the lesions. We study the class probabilities generated by the RF and the semantical meaning of the features learned by the CNN. We also use an eye tracker to better understand which radiological features are particularly useful for a radiologist to make a diagnosis and to quantitatively compare with the features that lead the CNN to its final classification decision. Additionally, we evaluate the effects and benefits of supplying the CAD system with a case-based "visual aid" in a second-reader setting.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph (IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics)
Cited: 0 times