BACKGROUND:Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular childhood disease. A body of literature has described the long-term renal prognosis of childhood-onset idiopathic NS. However, the nonrenal outcomes have not been studied as much. AIM:We aimed to discuss the long-term non-renal outcomes of childhood NS, highlighting studies with a follow-up period of more than 10 years. RESULTS:We reviewed the literature and found that a number of immunosuppressive agents have stopped inflammation, stabilised the podocyte cytoskeleton and reduce proteinuria. However, prolonged treatment has frequently been associated with a high risk of renal and non-renal complications in patients with a complicated disease course, defined as frequent relapses or steroid dependency. Non-renal complications may include impaired longitudinal growth and pubertal development, undesirable fertility outcomes, ocular complications, bone mineral diseases and potential malignancies. CONCLUSION:This review discusses and summarises the non-renal outcomes of idiopathic childhood NS.
Acta Paediatr. (Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992))
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