Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, MDCC 22-442 10833 LeConte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States. Electronic address: [email protected]
Although many pathogens affect neurodevelopment, most do so by stalling or arresting developmental progress with damage to central nervous system (CNS) cells and circuits during fetal life, leaving lifelong sequelae after early neuronal infection. In utero infections with CNS repercussions generally result from direct infection of fetal neural cells, with varying degrees of CNS involvement depending on the stage of fetal development. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is distinct from other conditions as it does not cause immediate repercussions to the CNS unless HIV perinatal infection is accompanied by other co-infections. Nevertheless, distinct from the other congenital infections which generally induce failure to attain developmental milestones, perinatal HIV infection causes developmental regression, with often indolent but progressive neurodevelopmental consequences. Loss of developmental milestones has long been recognized as an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome defining condition, often with growth failure. HIV encephalopathy presents as developmental delay/loss of developmental milestones, with manifestations in motor, mental and expressive language functions. Perinatal HIV disease is herein reviewed, with focus on developmental outcomes, diagnosis and treatment.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev (Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews)
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