To assess the risk of anthropometric measures and serum markers of insulin resistance in non-diabetic heart failure (NDHF) patients and the difference among male and female subjects. 53 males, 27 females NDHF patients were enrolled and 80 healthy subjects were matched as control. Anthropometric measures, fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) and serum insulin (SI) were measured. Insulin's function (β-cells quantification) was computed through Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Significant (p<0.05) difference in height was observed in NDHF male and female patients, whereas, weight was only significant in females. Higher mean values of FBGL, SI, and HOMA-IR in NDHF patients were observed. Highly significant (p<0.0001 & p<0.05) difference was also found in similar gender based case-control markers like FBGL, SI, and HOMA-IR. Phi coefficient for risk associations showed weak-positive correlation in both genders in FBGL, SI, and HOMA-IR. Anthropometric measures indicated lesser risk in both gender, especially in females' decreased risk in body height and waist circumference was observed. Risk measurement through odds ratios (OR) of FBGL and HOMA-IR in female subjects indicated significantly (p<0.001) double risk, whereas, in SI, three fold risks were measured in females as compared to male. Odds of exposure in cases were significantly (p<0.001) greater than in controls verified with significant Pearson and Fisher Exact Probability Test (FEPT) values with two-tailed estimates of probability in χ2 (Chi -Square) estimation test. Findings suggest increased risk of IR in female NDHF patients. Increased in FBGL IR and HOMA-IR and BMI were also found as distinguishing findings in NDHF cases.
Pak J Pharm Sci (Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences)
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