Alex K Mezei, Heather N Pedersen, Stephen Sy, Catherine Regan, Sheona M Mitchell-Foster, Josaphat Byamugisha, Musa Sekikubo, Heather Armstrong, Angeli Rawat, Joel Singer, Gina S Ogilvie, Jane J Kim, Nicole G Campos,
BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Uganda, despite the potential for prevention through organised screening. Community-based self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed to reduce barriers to screening. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Advances in Screening and Prevention of Reproductive Cancers (ASPIRE) trial, conducted in Kisenyi, Uganda in April 2014 (n=500). The trial compared screening uptake and compliance with follow-up in two arms: (1) community-based (ie, home or workplace) self-collected HPV testing (facilitated by community health workers) with clinic-based visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) triage of HPV-positive women ('HPV-VIA') and (2) clinic-based VIA ('VIA'). In both arms, VIA was performed at the local health unit by midwives with VIA-positive women receiving immediate treatment with cryotherapy. DESIGN:We informed a Monte Carlo simulation model of HPV infection and cervical cancer with screening uptake, compliance and retrospective cost data from the ASPIRE trial; additional cost, test performance and treatment effectiveness data were drawn from observational studies. The model was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of each arm of ASPIRE, as well as an HPV screen-and-treat strategy ('HPV-ST') involving community-based self-collected HPV testing followed by treatment for all HPV-positive women at the clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes were reductions in cervical cancer risk and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), expressed in dollars per year of life saved (YLS). RESULTS:HPV-ST was the most effective and cost-effective screening strategy, reducing the lifetime absolute risk of cervical cancer from 4.2% (range: 3.8%-4.7%) to 3.5% (range: 3.2%-4%), 2.8% (range: 2.4%-3.1%) and 2.4% (range: 2.1%-2.7%) with ICERs of US$130 (US$110-US$150) per YLS, US$240 (US$210-US$280) per YLS, and US$470 (US$410-US$550) per YLS when performed one, three and five times per lifetime, respectively. Findings were robust across sensitivity analyses, unless HPV costs were more than quadrupled. CONCLUSIONS:Community-based self-collected HPV testing followed by treatment for HPV-positive women has the potential to be an effective and cost-effective screening strategy.
BMJ Open (BMJ open)
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