Introduction:Evidence-based cessation methods including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), non-NRT medications, quitlines, and behavioral treatments are underutilized by smokers attempting to quit. Although a number of studies have demonstrated a relationship between state-level tobacco policies (eg, taxation, appropriations) and cessation, whether such state-level factors influence likelihood of using an evidence-based treatment is unclear. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were: (1) to describe evidence-based cessation method utilization by state and (2) to examine the effect of state-level factors on cessation method utilization above and beyond individual-level predictors. Methods:Data were utilized from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Participants included 9232 smokers who reported a past-year quit attempt. Data on 11 state-level predictors were collated from national datasets. Analyses were based on: (1) descriptive characterization of quit method usage, (2) logistic regression models to determine state-level factors as predictors of quit method utilization, controlling for individual-level predictors, (3) cluster analyses grouping states with similar state-level factors, and (4) examination of cluster as a predictor of cessation method. Results:Tobacco control appropriations significantly predicted NRT, quitline, and behavioral treatment utilization. Additional state-level factors that demonstrated significant relationships included Medicaid coverage of non-NRT medications and behavioral treatment, tobacco tax rate, smoking prevalence, and percentage of population uninsured. State clustering significantly predicted quit method across all four methods. Conclusions:State-level factors influence the likelihood of residents utilizing evidence-based quit methods. Results are discussed in terms of implications for tobacco policy at the state level. Implications:Results from the present study highlight state tobacco control appropriations as a robust predictor of evidence-based cessation method utilization. Other significant state-level predictors of evidence-based cessation method utilization included Medicaid coverage of non-NRT medications and behavioral treatment, tobacco tax rate, smoking prevalence, and percentage of population uninsured. Moreover, state-level predictors clustered together to significantly predict evidence-based cessation method utilization. Thus, increasing tobacco control appropriations, extending health insurance coverage, maximizing revenue from tobacco taxation and tobacco settlements, and ultimately decreasing smoking prevalence are important targets for individual states to promote utilization of evidence-based cessation methods.
Nicotine Tob. Res. (Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco)
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