Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and is responsible for approximately nine percent of all deaths worldwide. Cases of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans<i>)</i>-induced intracerebral hemorrhage as a result of bloodstream infections have seldom been reported. New reports show that bacteria with specific collagen binding proteins (CBPs), such as the Cnm type produced by S. mutans, may inhibit platelet aggregation and cause bleeding. In this article, we report on a 62-year-old man with a recent history of left frontal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who presented to the emergency department after a fall due to suspected seizure while in rehabilitation. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a right cerebellar hemorrhage with surrounding edema and mass effect on the fourth ventricle. A suboccipital craniotomy to evacuate the cerebellar ICH was completed without complication. Radiologic and angiographic assessments regarding the etiology of this patient's stroke did not reveal any evidence of vascular pathology or mycotic aneurysms to explain his recurrent intracranial hemorrhages. Through persistent patient and family interviews, it came to light that a few weeks prior to the patient's first ICH, he was diagnosed with a bloodstream infection by S. mutans<i>.</i> Bacteremia is known to be associated with embolic stroke, but only recently has it been shown that bacteremia can also be implicated in hemorrhagic stroke. S. mutans of the k serotype have specific CBPs that are attracted to exposed collagen in previously damaged small vessel walls. These bacterial proteins can interrupt the blood clotting cascade through the prevention of platelet aggregation, increasing the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.
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