A previous pharmacogenomic analysis identified cromolyn, an anti-allergic drug, as an effective anti-fibrotic agent that acts on hepatocytes and stellate cells. Furthermore, cromolyn was shown to be a G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) agonist. However, it has not been studied whether anti-fibrotic effects are mediated by GPR35. Therefore, in this study, the role of GPR35 in hepatic fibrosis was investigated through the use of lodoxamide, another anti-allergic drug and a potent GPR35 agonist. Longterm treatment with carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis, which was inhibited by treatment with lodoxamide. Furthermore, CID2745687, a specific GPR35 antagonist, reversed lodoxamide-mediated anti-fibrotic effects. In addition, lodoxamide treatment showed significant effects on the mRNA expression of collagen Iα1, collagen Iα2, and TGF-β1 in the extracellular matrix. However, a transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) shedding assay revealed lodoxamide not to be a potent agonist of mouse GPR35 <i>in vitro</i>. Therefore, these results showed anti-fibrotic effects of lodoxamide in mice and raise concerns how lodoxamide protects against liver fibrosis <i>in vivo</i> and whether GPR35 is involved in the action.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) (Biomolecules & therapeutics)
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