The proteins belonging to the inhibitor of growth (ING) family of proteins serve as epigenetic readers of the H3K4Me3 histone mark of active gene transcription and target histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein complexes, in order to alter local chromatin structure. These multidomain adaptor proteins interact with numerous other proteins to facilitate their localization and the regulation of numerous biochemical pathways that impinge upon biological functions. Knockout of some of the ING genes in murine models by various groups has verified their status as tumor suppressors, with ING1 knockout resulting in the formation of large clear-cell B-lymphomas and ING2 knockout increasing the frequency of ameloblastomas, among other phenotypic effects. ING4 knockout strongly affects innate immunity and angiogenesis, and INGs1, ING2, and ING4 have been reported to affect apoptosis in different cellular models. Although ING3 and ING5 knockouts have yet to be published, preliminary reports indicate that ING3 knockout results in embryonic lethality and that ING5 knockout may have postpartum effects on stem cell maintenance. In this review, we compile the known information on the domains of the INGs and the effects of altering ING protein expression, to better understand the functions of this adaptor protein family and its possible uses for targeted cancer therapy.
Cancers (Basel) (Cancers)
Cited: 2 times