Lisette Hauser, Senbetta Menasie, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Laurence Raoult, Nourredine AitOubelli, Marie Belloy, David Avran, Alexandre Beyloune, Marion Simonet, Typhaine Billard-Pomares, Béatrice Pangon, Philippe Bierling,
<h4>Background</h4>Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection (TTBI) is still one of the most feared complications of blood transfusion.<h4>Case report</h4>We report a fatal case involving an 8-year-old child with congenital dyskeratosis complicated by severe aplastic anemia who was regularly transfused with platelet (PLT) concentrates for 5 years. The patient received an apheresis PLT concentrate (APC) on Day 0 due to thrombocytopenia complicated by mucocutaneous hemorrhage. Thirty minutes after the start of the transfusion, bradycardia and dyspnea appeared, quickly followed by chills, nausea, vomiting, headache, and hyperthermia. TTBI was suspected and the patient was immediately treated with intravascular antibiotherapy. On Day 3, the patient developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome leading to death on Day 7. Patient blood cultures and APC cultures were both positive for Citrobacter koseri.<h4>Results</h4>The donor was a 19-year-old woman. She had previously given blood. No infectious symptom was reported during the medical interviews before and after the donation and no postdonation information was received. On the day of the donation (Day -2), her white blood cell count was 5.83 × 10<sup>9</sup> /L. She came back on Day 8 to undergo additional tests. The cultures from blood, stool, urine, the skin of the inside of the elbow at the point of needle insertion, and ear samples were all negative for C. koseri. However, a nasal sample was positive for C. koseri.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The isolates from the donor's blood cultures, the APC bag, the attached tube, and the donor's nasal sample all gave identical profiles; they were thus identified as the same strain and the TTBI was confirmed.
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