Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with the potential of causing severe encephalitis among immunocompromised human and animals. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and immunopathological role of nitric oxide (NO) in central nervous systems and to identify any correlation between toxoplasmosis neuropathology and investigate the consequences of the cellular responses protect against T. gondii. Mice were infected with ME49 strain T. gondii and levels of endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) were examined in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry, during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 10 30 and 60 days post infection. Results of the study revealed that the levels of eNOS (p < 0.05), nNOS (p < 0.05), iNOS (p < 0.005), GFAP (p < 0.005) and NF (p < 0.005) were remarkably higher in T. gondii-infected mice than in uninfected control. The most prominent finding from our study was 10 and 30 days after inoculation data indicating that increased levels of NO not only a potential neuroprotective role for immunoregulatory and immunopathological but also might be a molecular trigger of bradyzoite development. Furthermore, this findings were shown that high expressed NO origin was not only inducible nitric oxide synthase but also endothelial and neuronal. We demonstrated that activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages is a significant event in toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). The results also clearly indicated that increased levels of NO might contribute to neuropathology related with TE. Furthermore, expression of NF might gives an idea of the progress and critical for diagnostic significance of this disease.
Exp Parasitol (Experimental parasitology)
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