<h4>Background</h4>Pyomyositis due to Escherichia coli (E. coil) is rarely reported in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy.<h4>Case report</h4>We present a case report of a 34-year-old man who developed E. coli pyomyositis as a complication of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right hip suggested myofascial infection of the gluteal muscles, and a needle muscle aspiration grew E. coli phylogenetic group B2. The patient responded to intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by prolonged oral levofloxacin.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Pyomyositis should be suspected in all immunocompromised patients complaining of muscle pain and may exhibit signs of localized muscle infection. Appropriate antibiotic therapy targeting fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli should be considered for initial empiric therapy of pyomyositis in immunocompromised patients.
WMJ (WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin)
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